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Qualcomm Centriq 2400 – the field’s first 10nm server processor | Qualcomm


This day marks a chief milestone within the processor industry — we’ve launched Qualcomm Centriq 2400, the field’s first and handiest 10nm server processor. While that is the culmination of an intensive five-year tear for the Qualcomm Datacenter Applied sciences (QDT) crew, it moreover marks the starting up of an technology that can witness a step purpose within the economics and vitality effectivity of running a datacenter.

Cloud is reshaping datacenter computing

Cloud computing is rising at a torrid tempo. Pushed by the virtuous cycle of scale utilizing efficiencies, which in flip pressure increased scale, cloud is anticipated to account for added than 50% of the datacenter server earnings by 20201. This boost is utilizing profound shifts in datacenter infrastructure. Cloud provider providers (CSPs) non-public advanced their machine stacks to take burly earnings of standard, excessive-core-depend processors shifting from writing monolithic code that is deployed and scaled-up as one broad utility to multi-threaded purposes built for scale-out, including disbursed databases, disbursed file systems, and tiered utility topologies. Microservices, just chunk-sized parts that will likely be deployed by strategy of containers, are accelerating the momentum on the abet of scale-out infrastructure. The Qualcomm Centriq 2400 is the next circulation in optimized efficiency for this contemporary class of cloud datacenter infrastructure.

Aim built for cloud

Three key parts stand out as traits of cloud machine: It’s extremely threaded, throughput oriented, and disbursed and deployed in scale-out configurations. Qualcomm Centriq 2400 is particularly designed for maximum effectivity running cloud machine.

There are five dominant traits that a processor optimized for the cloud desires to meet:

  • Excessive aggregate throughput efficiency with excessive per-thread efficiency beneath load
  • A generous selection of hardware threads that multi-threaded machine can fully utilize
  • Quality of provider (QoS) aspects to make certain that resources are allotted moderately (i.e., warding off the ‘noisy neighbor’ mission)
  • Excessive vitality effectivity to maximize compute density and lower running charges
  • Low acquisition charges

From the very starting up, we’ve taken these as the elementary tenets for the salvage of the Qualcomm Centriq 2400 processor. From idea to architecture to salvage and model, we translated these tenets correct into a cutting back-edge processor, and in the present day we disclosed that the Qualcomm Centriq 2400 delivers distinctive throughput efficiency, efficiency per watt and efficiency per dollar.

Throughput and per-thread efficiency

The Qualcomm Centriq 2400 processor, according to the Qualcomm Falkor CPU, QDT’s non-public Armv8-basically based totally customized CPU core salvage, delivers standard aggregate efficiency, as confirmed by SPECint_rate20062 ranking estimates. These rankings are according to the starting up source gcc compiler, the utilize of -O2 flags, according to how cloud builders compile their non-public codethree.

Many cloud purposes require real-time responsiveness, necessitating single-thread efficiency while the machine is running a pair of threads at excessive utilization. For this, the single-thread SPECint_2006 benchmark is no longer the relevant selection, as it measures efficiency when the machine is at its minimum loading. In its set up, we checked out the aggregate efficiency of the machine the utilize of SPECint_rate2006, and dividing by the selection of hardware threads energetic a reflection of the single-thread efficiency of any individual thread when the server is running at its salvage point of maximum multi-threaded efficiency. By that metric, the Qualcomm Centriq 2400 has no longer handiest reached excessive aggregate efficiency, nonetheless it has executed so without compromise on per-thread efficiency.

Many CSPs require predictable efficiency to meet their buyer calls for and SLAs. The specified height frequency for the Qualcomm Centriq 2400 household is just of the selection of cores that are energetic. This methodology that CSPs can lower efficiency variability as extra cores are switched on to tackle increased load.

Energy effectivity

The Qualcomm Centriq 2400 delivers better efficiency per watt than competing x86 server processorsfour. We’ve taken a conventional Qualcomm Centriq 2460 processor and trek SPECint_rate2006, measuring the common energy for every sub-test. All tests ran on the burly 2.6 GHz height frequency. As a chief-declare witness, the common (both mean and median) energy of these measurements turn out to be 65W. Running the same test on an Intel Xeon Platinum 8176, which has same SPECint_rate2006 efficiency when compiled with gcc -O2, the energy we measured turn out to be vastly increased running at A hundred% of its 165W thermal salvage energy (TDP) and burning over 2.5x as powerful electricity for same efficiency!

Every other fundamental metric is the processor TDP, as servers will most definitely be designed according to the specified TDP. Stepping abet from the excellent bin parts, we are able to look at the Qualcomm Centriq 2452 processor with the Intel Xeon Gold 6152. The utilization of SPECint_rate2006 efficiency divided by TDP, the Qualcomm Centriq 2452 has 33% better efficiency per watt. Taking a peek on the inverse, with racks in general restricted in energy ability, that translates to a huge expand within the quantity of compute ability that will likely be packed correct into a rack. (Staunch expand is dependent on server overhead energy, server utilization, and rack ability, among other issues.)

Sluggish energy is moreover a extraordinarily fundamental metric for a range of datacenter customers, as pointless energy arrangement correct by strategy of lazy sessions can outcome in critical vitality consumption charges over the interval of an infrastructure’s realistic existence. The Qualcomm Centriq 2400 household delivers extraordinarily low lazy energy. We’ve measured energy correct by strategy of OS lazy at 8W even when the deepest lazy inform is proscribed to C1 in notify to lower lazy exit latency. With deeper lazy states enabled, measured energy plummets to beneath 4W, the utilize of Qualcomm Centriq 2400’s speedily energy give map with hardware place/restore logic. In environments the set up server utilization is low, this combination of low energy correct by strategy of both energetic and lazy states translates to critical vitality savings and a powerful greener datacenter.

Total value of possession

The largest ingredient within the TCO of running a datacenter, alternatively, is the acquisition value of the servers, and the processor is belief to be one of essentially the costliest parts on the server. The Qualcomm Centriq 2400 processor delivers a blinding efficiency-per-dollar. With a list ticket5 of $1,995, the forty eight-core Qualcomm Centriq 2460 processor delivers 4X better efficiency-per-dollar versus Intel’s perfect-efficiency Skylake processor, the Intel Xeon Platinum 8180. With a list ticket of $1373, the Forty six-core Qualcomm Centriq 2452 processor offers 3X better efficiency-per-dollar versus Intel Xeon Gold 6152. And, with a list ticket of $888, the forty-core Qualcomm Centriq 2434 processor offers 2X better efficiency-per-dollar versus Intel Xeon Silver 41166.

Qualcomm Centriq 2400 delivers many other key advantages for the cloud, corresponding to quality of provider administration, in-line reminiscence bandwidth compression, and get root of believe on the silicon stage, which we detailed right here and right here.

Driving an starting up ecosystem

Driving an starting up ecosystem round the Qualcomm Centriq 2400 processor is an fundamental pillar of our plot. To us, starting up ecosystem methodology embracing starting up requirements and collaboration with hardware, machine, and machine distributors. Via these collaborations, we’re handing over excellent-of-breed alternate recommendations for our customers to deploy on Qualcomm Centriq 2400 processors.

Over the last few years, the Arm-basically based totally processor ecosystem has made tremendous progress in enabling server machine for the cloud. Most starting up source machine is already available on Arm-basically based totally server processors. Foundational machine corresponding to firmware, running systems, compilers, virtualization and containers is supported on Arm processors, and infrastructure machine corresponding to language runtimes, databases (NoSQL and SQL), web front quit, recordsdata analytics, and orchestration is moreover supported on Arm processors.

Key cloud workload targets

With standard efficiency, revolutionary aspects, and an starting up ecosystem, the Qualcomm Centriq 2400 household is optimized for cloud native workloads. Workloads that are a honest fit for Qualcomm Centriq 2400 processors embody web front quit, NoSQL databases, mountainous recordsdata analytics, sing material transport networks, video and movie processing purposes, picture recognition, successfully being-and existence-sciences purposes, and machine defined NVMe storage farms. At our initiate tournament in the present day, we’re demonstrating many of these cloud workloads running on Qualcomm Centriq 2400 processor basically based totally servers.

In optimizing for cloud workloads, there might be understandably a inform of workloads that we’re no longer at this time focusing on. Some venerable endeavor IT workloads that don’t scale with cores fall into this category. A honest instance right here would be transactional databases that utilize scale-up servers so as to tackle generous databases.


We’re hooked in to bringing to market the field’s first and handiest 10nm server processor. Qualcomm Centriq 2400 delivers distinctive throughput efficiency, leadership efficiency-per-watt and efficiency-per-dollar, and drastically shifts the economics of possession and operation for cloud datacenter operators. We’re having a peek ahead to persevering with to work with our customers and companions to pressure further innovations into datacenter infrastructure. 


1. In line with an IDC document from December 2016.

2. These are called estimated rankings, as they’ve no longer yet passed by strategy of the SPEC.org reporting recommendations.

three., four., 6. Predominant aspects on efficiency measurements are within the quit notes piece of presentation posted right here.

5. List costs as of 11/8/2017.

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